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    Raphael, Sandra

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    Raux, Sophie

    Sophie Raux is Associate Professor in the History of Early Modern Art at the University of Lille 3.

    Publications:

    ‘L’église comme « salon continuel » de la peinture. L'exemple de la commande de l'abbaye de Marchiennes à Cazes, Vien, Pierre et Restout’, Revue de l’Art (2012)

     

     

     

     

     

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    Ravaglia, Valentina

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    Ravesteyn, Aert

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    Ray, Anthony

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    Read, Benedict

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    Read, C. Hercules

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    Read, Herbert (H. R.)

    Herbert Edward Read, 1893-1968

    Editor of The Burlington Magazine from 1933 until October 1939. Contributor from 1923 until 1968.

    Historian of modern art and art critic.  Read was the eldest of three sons born to a Yorkshire, England, farmer.  Orphaned early, he was sent to Crossley's School, Halifax.  At age 16 he worked as a bank clerk, studying in the evenings for entrance to Leeds University.  He entered Leeds in 1912 where he initially studied economics.  After graduation, he served in the army in World War I (1915-18) with distinction, rising to the rank of captain and engaging in battles in Belgium and France. In 1919 he married Evelyn Roff.  After military service, Read worked in the British civil service as the secretary to the Controller of Establishments.

    In 1922 he joined the department of Ceramics at the Victoria and Albert Museum.  There he wrote books on English stained glass and pottery. As a museum curator, he made professional contacts in Germany, making close friends with Wilhelm Worringer, professor of art history at Bonn, and Max Sauerlandt, director of the Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe.  Read translated Worringer's influential  Formprobleme der Gotik, 1912, into English as Form in Gothic in 1927.  Through Sauerlandt and Worringer, he met the Bauhaus artists and architects who helped him form many of his ideas on modern art.  Read also published literary criticism in the magazine New Age.

    In 1931 he left the Victoria and Albert Museum for the Watson Gordon chair of fine arts position at Edinburgh University. During these years as an academic he published some of his most influential texts.  In 1931, perhaps his most famous book on art, The Meaning of Art, appeared.  It was followed by Art Now: an Introduction to the Theory of Modern Painting and Sculpture in 1933 and Art and Industry in 1934.

    Read left the University in 1933 to edit The Burlington Magazine. During these years he lived in Hampstead and came to know many of the artists whom he would champion in later years.  These included Henry Moore, Ben Nicholson and Nicholson's wife, Barbara Hepworth.  For the academic year 1935-36 he was Sydney Jones lecturer in art at the University of Liverpool.  His first marriage dissolved, he married Margaret Ludwig in 1936.

    In 1937 Read used his position as editor of The Burlington Magazine to lead a protest of the appointment of Thomas Boase (q.v.) as second director of the Courtauld Institute, questioning the direction the institution was tending. Read was chosen to be the first director of a museum of modern art in London, but the entry of Britain into the second world war prevented the museum's establishment. During the early war years he was the Leon fellow at the University of London 1940-42.

    Read's writing during this time shows clearest his sympathies with socialism and the notion that refined aesthetics could lead to social harmony.  His Art and Society appeared in 1937 and Anarchy and Order in 1945.  Perhaps most influential book, because of the numerous translations, was his 1943 Education through Art, essentially a manifesto of the anarchism Read embraced.

    After the war, Read joined the book publishing firm of Routledge and Keegan Paul where he edited a series on "English Master Painters."   Together with Roland Penrose, he founded the Institute of Contemporary Arts in 1947. He was knighted in 1953, lecturing as the Charles Eliot Norton Fellow at Harvard University between 1953-54. An A. W. Mellon lecture at the National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC, followed in 1954.

    Read focused a great deal of his writing in the 1950s and after on Henry Moore, building on an initial volume of 1944 into his Henry Moore: a Study of His Life and Work in 1965.  In 1959, his Concise History of Modern Painting was first published.  A lifelong pacifist, perhaps due to his personal war experiences (his brother was killed in World War I), he participated in the Ban the Bomb movement including a sitdown strike in Trafalgar Square. His papers reside at the University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.

    Select Bibliography: Herbert Read, Annals of Innocence and Experience, London, 1940 [subsequent editions published under the title The Innocent Eye]; ‘Herbert Read’ in: David Thistlewood, Dictionary of Art 1949-1950, p. 26; Soloman Fisherman, The Interpretation of Art: Essays on the Art of Criticism of John Ruskin, Walther Pater, Clive Bell, Roger Fry and Herbert Read, Berkeley, 1963, pp. 143-86; ‘Sir Herbert Read: Poet, Critic and Interpreter of Modern Art’, Times, June 13, 1968, p. 12; Basil Taylor, ‘Herbert Read’, Burlington Magazine, August 1968, pp. 462-465. ‘Herbert Read and the Burlington Magazine’ [editorial], Burlington Magazine, August 1968, pp. 433-434. Robin Skelton (ed.), Herbert Read: A Memorial Symposium, London, 1970; Eugene W. Kleinbauer, Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts, New York, 1971, p. 12.

    Note: More information on Herbert Read may be found on the Dictionary Art Historians (http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/), from where the text above is extracted. The above text is copyright of the Dictionary of Art Historians. The Burlington Magazine wishes to thank Lee Sorensen and the Dictionary of art historians for allowing the use of this resource.

     

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    Read, John

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